Embedded development is vast and huge. In fact, it is a whole subject in itself and cannot be confined to a simple blog. However, when people want to get started with it, their goal is either to make their software work and affect physical things. Or their goal is that they want to learn what is happening and what is at the core, as well as how it is being run.
If you just want to make software which will affect physical things, you can try a number of hobbyist sites and platforms which are available. Some of them are Particle, Raspberry Pi and more. There are various communities which you can be part of and learn from them too.
However, if you want to get into the nitty gritties, you need to know C. You also need to have an understanding of current, voltage, power, ohms law, resistance and other such factors. You also would need a digital multimeter, a soldering iron, a JTAG adapter or a debugger for hardware in order to get you started.
Then you need a microcontroller so that the programs can be run as well as a compiler which will allow you to compile these programs for the microcontroller. You would need tools to load the programs on the hardware as well and also tools to debug these programs.
The components will then need to be picked, and they would need to be put together. You can use a Mouser, Digikey or Adafruit as well as Sparkfun. When the components are found, you will need to work with their datasheets. These are their manuals, and you need to know what will work for you best.
Datasheets are the main core of embedded programming, and you should know how to read the datasheet before you can progress in the world of embedded programming.
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